The fourth programme in a six-part series exploring the legacy of the Industrial Revolution.
`Medical practice was in the dark ages when the Industrial Revolution began. Disease was rife, and the average life expectancy was 36 years. Dan Cruickshank tells the amazing story of the pioneers of reason and science who challenged the old order: James Lind conducted the first clinical trial, proving that oranges and lemons could save the lives of thousands of sailors by preventing scurvy; Edward Jenner, a doctor preoccupied with beautiful milkmaids, used observation and lateral thinking to establish a vaccination against the killer disease, smallpox; the desperately shy doctor Rene Laennec, wishing to avoid pressing his ear against the breasts of his female patients, invented the great symbol of the doctor and key instrument of diagnosis, the stethoscope.' [Open University Worldwide].